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This is an alphabetical listing of all articles in The First Amendment Encyclopedia. For more information, see About the First Amendment Encyclopedia.

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A Florida court said 2 Live Crew's rap lyrics were obscene, but a circuit court reversed the decision, saying the music was protected by the First Amendment Rhode Island advanced First Amendment protections for commercial speech when it struck down a state law banning the advertising of In A Quantity of Books v. Kansasthe Court held that a state statute allowing obscene materials to be seized and confiscated violated the First Mitchell Palmer directed the "Palmer raids," a series of roundups of thousands of radicals suspected of communist subversion.

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The raids violated First He teaches at Loyola Law School Abington School District v. Schempp ended devotional exercises in public schools because the First Amendment forbade the recognition of one religion over Before the Civil War, pro-slavery legislators attempted to squelch anti-slavery speech and writing through gag rules and other anti-First Amendment measures Abood v.

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Detroit Board of Education said that requiring government employees to pay union dues that weren't used for political purposes did not violate The competing right under Roe v. Wade of women's access to abortion clinics must be balanced against the First Amendment rights of abortion protesters Though revered by history, Abraham Lincoln has been criticized for his restrictions on civil liberties during the Civil War, including First Amendment freedoms The dissenting opinion in Abrams v.

Presented by the john seigenthaler chair of excellence in first amendment studies

United States advanced the free marketplace of ideas even though the majority opinion stifled First Amendment Absolutists believe that the First Amendment means that state and federal governments may pass no laws abridging the rights of religion, speech, press or David Horowitz's Academic Bill of Rights attempts to establish principles of the First Amendment on college campuses that Horowitz says have been violated by Academic freedom is a First Amendment principle that teachers, students and educational institutions should be able to pursue knowledge without government Although the First Amendment doesn't mention freedom of access to courtrooms, the Supreme Court has held that the public right to attend criminal proceedings is Accommodationism says the First Amendment promotes a beneficial relationship between religion and government.

It is a way to interpret the establishment and Action for Children's Television v.

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FCC D. Actual malice is the legal standard the Supreme Court uses to protect the media in libel cases in determining when public officials or figures may win damages In First Amendment law, ad hoc balancing involves judging cases on their unique facts, rejecting formulaic tests to determine whether speech is protected or not In Adderly v. Floridathe Supreme Court said stopping protestors from blocking access to a jail did not suppress their First Amendment freedoms Adler v.

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Board of Education upheld a state law that prevented members of subversive groups from teaching. Dissenters said the law violated First The Adult Film Association of America was founded as the first trade association of pornographic film producers, working to defend the First Amendment rights of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has faced censorship since its publication in Alleged racist material has been most often cited for banning Mere advocacy of illegal conduct was not protected by the First Amendment until Brandenburg v.

Ohiowhich created the incitement to imminent lawless In Advocate Health Care Network v. Two Supreme Court cases involving affirmative action relied in part on the First Amendment to protect a university's admission rights and to uphold use of Agency for International Development v.

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Alliance for Open Society said barring funding for NGOs not explicitly opposed to certain policies violated the The Supreme Court in ruled that First Amendment speech protections did not apply to foreign organizations in affirming a law barring AIDS funding to Agostini v. Felton ruled that a New York program allowing public school teachers to provide remedial instruction in private schools did not violate the Aguilar v.

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Felton said that New York had violated the First Amendment by paying public school teachers to teach low-income students in private religious The Supreme Court has ruled in many cases involving government aid to religious schools. The Court primarily has weighed whether such aid violates the First Government aid to religious colleges presents several First Amendment—related issues including employment policies, construction grants and student Air Wisconsin Airlines Corp.

Hoeper dealt with immunity for reporting information that might be considered defamatory and unprotected by the First Alberts v.

The first amendment encyclopedia

California marks the first time the Supreme Court specifically ruled that obscenity does not fall under the protection of the First Amendment Alcohol advertising is protected under the First Amendment as long as it does not promote unlawful activity and is not misleading, but it can be regulated Alex Kozinski, a former judge on the 9th U. Circuit Court of Appeals, is well-known for his First Amendment writings in the areas of commercial speech and Alexander Bickel, a well-known legal scholar, was the attorney for the New York Times in the Pentagon Papers case that advanced First Amendment press freedom Though initially opposed to the Bill of Rights, Alexander Hamilton had a lifelong concern with the individual liberties guaranteed by the First Amendment Alexander v.

United States rejected claims that the First Amendment rights of a petitioner convicted under obscenity and racketeering laws had been Alexis de Tocqueville wrote one of the most profound discussions of American democracy in the 19th century. He was particularly impressed by the role of First Alfred M. For much of his career, he represented Although the First Amendment to the U. Constitution makes no distinction between citizens and noncitizens, the Court has not always treated these groups the The Alliance Defending Freedom is a conservative Christian organization dedicated to issues connected to First Amendment religious freedom and family Alvin Goldstein was an outspoken publisher of pornography and advocate of free speech who was engaged in several First Amendment battles in the courts Courtney yates nude Amalgamated Food Employees v.

Logan Valley Plazathe Court held that state courts could not en peaceful picketing in a private shopping mall In American Academy of Religion v. Chertoffa New York court affirmed the First Amendment rights of scholars who had invited an Islamic scholar to teach American Amusement Machine Association v. Kendrick courtney yates nude Cir. The American Association of University Professors represents the interests of academics and provides assistance to protect the First Amendment academic freedom The book American Aurora illustrates the use of newspapers as partisan instruments and the precariousness of First Amendment press freedom in early U.

In American Booksellers Association v.

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Hudnutthe 7th Circuit Court said an Indianapolis anti-pornography ordinance violated the First Amendment The American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression promotes the free exchange of ideas by defending the First Amendment rights of booksellers against The American Civil Liberties Union states as its mission the protection and preservation of First Amendment rights, equal protection under the law, and the ACLU v. American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born v. Subversive Activities Control Board said the control board should reconsider a group's communist American Communications Association v.

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Douds said the requiring unions to affirm their leaders were not Communists did not violate the First Amendment American Federation of Labor v. American Sash and Door Co. American Freedom Defense Initiative v.

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King Countywhich involved First Amendment implications of advertising on public transit systems, was denied The American Friends Service Committee, founded inhas been active in defending civil rights and civil liberties, and is a vocal proponent of First American Legion v. American Humanist Association ruled that a longstanding cross erected to honor slain servicemen does not violate the First Amendment The American Library Association supports the First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and press as they pertain to libraries, librarians, and library American Life League v.

Reno 4th Cir. The American Nazi Party is one of several hundred white supremacist groups in the United States whose words and actions have tested the limits of the First American Radio Association v. Mobile Steamship Association held that an injunction against picketing of foreign ships did not violate the First Amendment

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